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Common Solvents Used in Organic Chemistry: Table of Properties1

Solvent Formula MW Boiling
Point
(°C)
melting
point
(°C)
density
(g/mL)
Solubility² Dielectric
Constant ³
flash
point
(°C)
acetic acid C2H4O2 60.052 118 16.6 1.0446 Miscible 6.20 39
acetone C3H6O 58.079 56.05 -94.7 0.7845 Miscible 21.01 -20
acetonitrile C2H3N 41.052 81.65 -43.8 0.7857 Miscible 36.64 6
benzene C6H6 78.11 80.1 5.5 0.8765 0.18 2.28 -11
1-butanol C4H10O 74.12 117.7 -88.6 0.8095 6.3 17.8 37
2-butanol C4H10O 74.12 99.5 -88.5 0.8063 15 17.26 24
2-butanone C4H8O 72.11 79.6 -86.6 0.7999 25.6 18.6 -9
t-butyl alcohol C4H10O 74.12 82.4 25.7 0.7887 Miscible 12.5 11
carbon tetrachloride CCl4 153.82 76.8 -22.6 1.594 0.08 2.24 --
chlorobenzene C6H5Cl 112.56 131.7 -45.3 1.1058 0.05 5.69 28
chloroform CHCl3 119.38 61.2 -63.4 1.4788 0.795 4.81 --
cyclohexane C6H12 84.16 80.7 6.6 0.7739 0.0055 2.02 -20
1,2-dichloroethane C2H4Cl2 98.96 83.5 -35.7 1.245 0.861 10.42 13
diethylene glycol C4H10O3 106.12 246 -10 1.1197 10 31.8 124
diethyl ether C4H10O 74.12 34.5 -116.2 0.713 7.5 4.267 -45
diglyme (diethylene glycol
dimethyl ether)
C6H14O3 134.17 162 -68 0.943 Miscible 7.23 67
1,2-dimethoxy-
ethane (glyme, DME)
C4H10O2 90.12 84.5 -69.2 0.8637 Miscible 7.3 -2
dimethyl-
formamide (DMF)
C3H7NO 73.09 153 -60.48 0.9445 Miscible 38.25 58
dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) C2H6OS 78.13 189 18.4 1.092 25.3 47 95
1,4-dioxane C4H8O2 88.11 101.1 11.8 1.033 Miscible 2.21(25) 12
ethanol C2H6O 46.07 78.5 -114.1 0.789 Miscible 24.6 13
ethyl acetate C4H8O2 88.11 77 -83.6 0.895 8.7 6(25) -4
ethylene glycol C2H6O2 62.07 195 -13 1.115 Miscible 37.7 111
glycerin C3H8O3 92.09 290 17.8 1.261 Miscible 42.5 160
heptane C7H16 100.20 98 -90.6 0.684 0.01 1.92 -4
hexamethylphosphoramide
(HMPA)
C6H18N3OP 179.20 232.5 7.2 1.03 Miscible 31.3 105
hexamethylphosphorous
triamide (HMPT)
C6H18N3P 163.20 150 -44 0.898 Miscible ?? 26
hexane C6H14 86.18 69 -95 0.659 0.0014 1.89 -22
methanol CH4O 32.04 64.6 -98 0.791 Miscible 32.6(25) 12
methyl t-butyl
ether (MTBE)
C5H12O 88.15 55.2 -109 0.741 5.1 ?? -28
methylene chloride CH2Cl2 84.93 39.8 -96.7 1.326 1.32 9.08 1.6
N-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone
(NMP)
CH5H9NO 99.13 202 -24 1.033 10 32 91
nitromethane CH3NO2 61.04 101.2 -29 1.382 9.50 35.9 35
pentane C5H12 72.15 36.1 -129.7 0.626 0.04 1.84 -49
petroleum ether (ligroine) -- -- 30-60 -40 0.656 -- -- -30
1-propanol C3H8O 60.10 97 -126 0.803 Miscible 20.1(25) 22
2-propanol C3H8O 60.10 82.4 -88.5 0.785 Miscible 18.3(25) 12
pyridine C5H5N 79.10 115.2 -41.6 0.982 Miscible 12.3(25) 17
tetrahydrofuran (THF) C4H8O 72.106 65 -108.4 0.8833 soluble² 7.52 -14
toluene C7H8 92.14 110.6 -93 0.867 0.05 2.38(25) 4
triethyl amine C6H15N 101.19 88.9 -114.7 0.728 0.02 2.4 -11
water H2O 18.02 100.00 0.00 0.998 -- 78.54 --
water, heavy D2O 20.03 101.3 4 1.107 Miscible ?? --
o-xylene C8H10 106.17 144 -25.2 0.897 Insoluble 2.57 32
m-xylene C8H10 106.17 139.1 -47.8 0.868 Insoluble 2.37 27
p-xylene C8H10 106.17 138.4 13.3 0.861 Insoluble 2.27 27

Notes:

  1. In 2005, this table was adapted by Dr. Brian J. Myers, Webmaster of ACS Division of Organic Division (DOC) from: Professor Murov's Organic solvent table. The values were obtained from the CRC (87th edition), or Vogel's Practical Organic Chemistry (5th ed.).
  2. Solubilities are in water and are reported as grams solvent/100 grams water. The water solubility of THF is complex. See: Pubchem
  3. T = 20 °C unless specified otherwise.
  4. You can find more detailed information (Health & Safety, Physical, Regulatory, Environmental) on various organic solvents from Pubchem
  5. Solvent guides for following Green Chemistry principles are available at: https://organicdivision.org/GreenChemistry/
  6. In 2020, Dr. Joseph Ward, DOC Head Webmaster formated the table to accommodate a wide range of screens and add sorting to the table. Additionally, it was moved to the DOC's Organic Chemistry Data Website that was created by Dr. Khoi Van.
  7. A PDF version of this page is available here.
  8. Question or comments? Contact the ACS Organic Division
  9. This page was updated (table sorting was added): August 9, 2020